Group Publications

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University of Alberta

[Note: Links for Open Access versions are given as "OA link"]

44. "Selective inhibitors of human neuraminidase-3," Guo T; Datwyler P; Demina E; Richards MR; Ge P; Zou C; Zheng R; Fougerat A; Pshezhetsky AV; Ernst B; Cairo CW*, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2018, 61(5), 1990. [epub Feb 9, 2018; DOI]

43. "Human neuraminidase isoenzymes show variable activities for 9-O-acetyl-sialoside substrates," Hunter CD; Khanna N; Richards MR; Darestani RR; Zou C; Klassen JS; Cairo CW*, ACS Chemical Biology, 2018, 13(4), 922. [epub Jan 17, 2018; DOI]

42. "Construction of multivalent homo- and hetero-functional ABO blood group glycoconjufates using a trifunctional linker strategy," Daskhan G; Tran HT; Meloncelli P; Lowary TL; West LJ; Cairo CW*, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 2018, 29(2), 343. [accepted Dec 13, 2017; DOI]

41. "Galectin-3 alters the lateral mobiliy and clustering of b1-integrin receptors," Yang, EH; Howlader, Md A; Eckerman, M; Santos, JT; Hernandez Armada, D; Zheng, R; Zou, C; Cairo, CW*, PLoS ONE, 12(10), e0184378. [epub Oct 10, 2017; DOI]

40. "Integrin-mediated cell migration is blocked by inhibitors of human neuraminidase," Jia, F.; Howlader, M.A.; Cairo, C.W.*, BBA - Molecular and Cellular Biology of Lipids, 2016, 1861(9), 1170-1179. [epub Jun 22, 2016; DOIOA link]

39. "Screening glycolipids against proteins in vitro using picodiscs and catch-and-release electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry," Li, J; Fan, X; Kitova, EN; Zou, C; Cairo, CW; Euginia, L; Ng, KKS; Xiong, ZJ; Prive, GG; Klassen, JS*, Analytical Chemistry, 2016, 88(9), 4742-4750. [epub Apr 6, 2016; DOI].

38. "Conjugation of ABO-Antigens to Silica Microparticles for detection of Blood group-specific B cells," Slaney, A.; Dijke, E.; Jeyakanthan, M.; Li, C.; Zou, L.; Plaza-Alexander, P.; Meloncelli, P.J.; Bau, J.A.; Lowary, T.L.; West, L.J.; Cairo, C.W.; Buriak, J.*, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 2016, 27(3), 705-715. [epub Jan 27, 2016; DOI].

37. "ABH-Glycan Microarray Characterizes ABO Subtype Antibodies: Fine Specificity of Immune Tolerance After ABO-Incompatible Transplantation," Jeyakanthan, M; Meloncelli, PJ; Zou, L; Lowary, TL*; Larsen, I; Tollenaar, S; Fernandez, M; Tao, K; Rusch, J; Chinnock, R; Shaw, N; Burch, M; Beddows, K; Addonizio, L; Zuckerman, W; Pahl, E; Rutledge, J; Kanter, KR; Cairo, CW; Buriak, JM; Ross, D; Rebeyka, I; West LJ*, American Journal of Transplantation, 2016, 16(5), 1548-1558. [epub Nov 25, 2015; DOI]

36. "Sialidase discrimination against diazirine-modified sugars enables enhanced crosslinking of sialylated glycoproteins," McCoombs, J.E.; Zou, C.; Parker, R.B.; Cairo, C.W.; Kohler, J.J.*, ACS Chemical Biology, 2016, 11(1), 185-192. [epub Nov 5, 2015; DOI]

35. "Detection of diffusion heterogeneity in single particle tracking trajectories using a hidden Markov model with measurement noise propagation," Slator, P.J.; Cairo, C.W.; Burrough, N.J.*, PLoS ONE, 2015, 10(10):e0140759. [epub Oct 16, 2015; OA link]

34. "Protecting group-free immobilization of glycans for affinity chromatography using glycosylsulfonohydrazide donors," Hernandez Armada, D.; Santos, J.T.; Richards, M.R.; Cairo, C.W.*, Carbohydrate Research, 2015, 417, 109-116. [epub Sep 16, 2015; DOIOA link]

33. "Picodiscs for facile protein-glycolipid interaction analysis," Leney, A.C.; Darestani, R.R.; Li, J.; Nikjah, S.; Kitova, E.N.; Zou, C.; Cairo, C.W.; Xiong, Z.J.; Prive, G.G.; Klassen, J.S.*, Analytical Chemistry, 2015, 87(8), 4402-4408. [epub Mar 24, 2015; DOI]

32. "A FRET Probe for Cell-Based Imaging of Gangliosiode-Processing Enzyme Activity and High-Throughput Screening," Yang, G.-Y.; Li, C.; Fischer, M.; Cairo, C.W.; Feng, Y.; Withers, S.G.*, Angew. Chem., 2015, 54(18), 5389-5393. [epub Mar 10, 2015; DOI] [Editor selected "Hot Paper"]

31. "Mapping substrate interactions of the human membrane-associated neuraminidase, NEU3, using STD NMR," Albohy, A.; Richards, M.R.; Cairo, C.W.*, Glycobiology, 2015, 25(3), 284-293. [epub Oct 6, 2014; DOI]

30. “Structural basis for substrate specificity of mammalian neuraminidases,” Smutova, V.; Albohy, A.; Xuefang, P.; Korchaqina, E.; Miyagi, T.; Bovin, N.; Cairo, C.W.; Pshezhetsky, A.*, PLoS ONE, 2014, 9(9), e106320 [epub Sep 15, 2014; OA Link]

29. "Sialidase NEU4 is involved in glioblastoma stem cell survival," Silvestri, I.; Testa, F.; Zappasodi, R.; Cairo, C.W.; Zhang, Y.; Lupo, B.; Galli, R.; Di Nicola, M.; Venerando, B.V.; Tringali, C.*, Cell Death & Disease, 2014, 5, e1381 [epub Aug 22, 2014; OA link] [highlighted in Express NewsCTV Edmonton, and the Edmonton Journal]

28. "Conformational analysis of peramivir reveals critical differences between free and enzyme-bound states," M.R. Richards, M.G. Brant, M. Boulanger, C.W. Cairo, and J.W. Wulff*, MedChemComm, 2014, 5. 1483-1488. [epub Jun 19, 2014; OA linkInside front cover]

27.    "Practical labeling methodology for choline-derived lipids and applications in live cell fluorescence imaging," C. Li, J.A. Key, F. Jia, A. Dandapat, S. Hur, and C.W. Cairo*Photochemistry & Photobiology, 2014, 90(3), 686-695. [epub Jan 3, 2014; DOI] [Journal Cover and Featured on journal webpage]Journal Cover for the May/June issue of Photochemistry & Photobiology, ref 27

26.    "Mycobacterial phenolic glycolipids with a simplified lipid aglycone modulate cytokine levels through Toll-like receptor 2," H.R.H. Elsaidi, D.R. Barreda, C.W. Cairo, and T.L. Lowary*, ChemBioChem, 2013, 14(16), 2153-2159. [epub Oct 2, 2013; DOI]

25.    "alpha-Bromophosphonate analogs of glucose-6-phosphate are inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphatase," A. M. Downey and  C.W. Cairo* , Carbohydrate Research, 2013, 381, 123-132. [epub Aug 10, 2013; OA link]

24.    "Interlaboratory study on differential analysis of protein glycosylation by mass spectrometry: the ABRF Glycoprotein Research Multi-institutional Study" N. Leymarie, et al. (67 authors incl.  UofA contributors:  C.W. Cairo , R. Daneshfar, B. Reiz, R. Whittal, and C. Zou), Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, 2012, 12, 2935-2951. [epub June 13, 2013; DOIOA link]

23.    "Glycoform remodeling generates a synthetic T cell phenotype," C. Zou, R.S. Loka, Y. Zhang, and C.W. Cairo*, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 2013, 24(6), 907-914. [epub June 6, 2013; DOI]

22.    "Identification of Selective Nanomolar Inhibitors of the Human Neuraminidase, NEU4," A. Albohy, Y. Zhang, V. Smutova, A.V. Pshezhetsky, and C.W. Cairo*, ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2013, 4(6), 532-537. [epub May 7, 2013; DOIOA link] [highlighted by the Faculty of Science]

21.    "Positive Regulation of Insulin Signaling by Neuraminidase 1," L. Dridi, V. Seyrantepe, A. Fougerat, X. Pan, E. Bonneil, P. Thibault, A. Moreau, G.A. Mitchell, N. Heveker, C.W. Cairo, T. Issad, A. Hinek, and A.V. Pshezhetsky*, Diabetes, 2013, 62(7), 2338-2346. [epub Mar 21, 2013; DOIOA link]

20.    "Identification of selective inhibitors of human sialidase isoenzymes using C4, C7-modified-2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneruaminic acid (DANA) analogs," Y. Zhang, A. Albohy, V. Smutova, A.V. Pshezhetsky, and C.W. Cairo*, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 56(7), 2948-2958 [epub Mar 26, 2013; DOI]

19.    "Protein-glycosphingolipid interactions revealed using catch-and-release mass spectrometry," Y. Zhang, L. Liu, R. Daneshfar, E.N. Kitova, C. Li, F. Jia, C.W. Cairo, and J.S. Klassen*, Analytical Chemistry, 2012, 84(18), 7618-7621. [epub Aug 24, 2012; DOI]

18.    "Detection of cellular sialic acid content using nitrobenzoxadiazole carbonyl-reactive chromophores," J.A. Key, C. Li, and C.W. Cairo*, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 2012, 23(3), 363-371. [epub Jan 30, 2012; DOI]

17.    "Substituted benzoxadiazoles as fluorogenic probes: A computational study of absorption and fluorescence," A. Brown*, T.Y. Ngai, M. Barnes, J.A. Key, and C.W. Cairo, Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2012, 116(1), 46-54. [epub Dec 2, 2011; DOI]

16.    "Substrate recognition of the membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 requires a hydrophobic aglycone," M. Sandbhor, N. Soya, A. Albohy, R.B. Zheng, J. Cartmell, D.R. BundleJ.S. Klassen, and C.W. Cairo*, Biochemistry, 2011, 50(32), 6753-6762. [epub Jun 15, 2011; DOI]

15.    "Selectivity of a new class of oseltamivir analogs for viral neuraminidase over human neuraminidase enzymes," A. Albohy, S. Mohan, R.B. Zheng, B.M. Pinto, and C.W. Cairo*, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2011, 19(9), 2817-2822. [accepted Mar 18, 2011; epub Mar 23, 2011; DOI].

14.    "Analysis of molecular diffusion by first-passage time variance identifies the size of confinement zones," V. Rajani, G. Carrero, D.E. GolanG. de Vries*, and C.W. Cairo*, Biophysical Journal, 2011, 100(6), 1463-1472. [accepted Jan 28, 2011; epub Mar 17, 2011; DOIOA link].

13.    "Inhibition of human neuraminidase 3 (NEU3) by C9-triazole derivatives of 2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid," Y. Zou, A. Albohy, M. Sandbhor, and C.W. Cairo*, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2010, 20(24), 7529-7533. [accepted Sep 22, 2010; epub Sep 29, 2010; DOI]

12.    "A protected L-bromophosphonomethylphenylalanine amino acid derivative (BrPmp) for synthesis of irreversible protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors," N.S. Tulsi, A.M. Downey, and C.W. Cairo*, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, 18(24), 8679-8686. [accepted Sep 15, 2010; epub: Sep 29, 2010; DOI]

11.    "Immobilization of carbohydrate epitopes for surface plasmon resonance using the Staudinger Ligation," R.S. Loka and C.W. Cairo*, Carbohydrate Research, 2010, 345(18), 2641-2647. [accepted Sep 15, 2010; epub: Sep 21, 2010; DOI]

10.    "Conjugation of synthetic N-acetyl-lactosamine to azide-containing proteins using the Staudinger Ligation," R.S. Loka, C.M. Sadek, N.A. Romaniuk, and C.W. Cairo*, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 2010, 21(10), 1842-1849. [accepted Aug 30, 2010; epub: Sep 15, 2010; DOI ]

9.    "A monomeric photoconvertible fluorescent protein for imaging of dynamic protein localization," H. Hoi, N.C. Schaner, M.W. Davidson, C.W. Cairo, J. Wang, and R.E. Campbell*, Journal of Molecular Biology, 2010, 401(5), 776-791. [accepted Jun 25, 2010; epub: Jul 5, 2010; DOI]

8.    "Insight into substrate recognition and catalysis by the human neuraminidase 3 (NEU3) through molecular modeling and site directed mutagenesis," A. Albohy, M.D. Li, R.B. Zheng, C. Zou, and C.W. Cairo*, Glycobiology, 2010, 20(9), 1127-1138. [accepted May 17, 2010; epub: May 28, 2010DOI]

triazole fluorophores7.    “Identification of fluorogenic and quenched benzoxadiazole reactive chromophores,” J.A. Key and C.W. Cairo*Dyes & Pigments, 2011, 88(1), 95-102. [accepted May 13, 2010; epub: Jun 18, 2010; DOI]

6.    “A fluorogenic SNAr reaction for demonstrating normal-phase chromatography and isolation of nitrobenzoxadiazole chromophores,” J.A. Key, M.D. Li, and C.W. Cairo*,Journal of Chemical Education, 2011, 88(1), 98-100[accepted May 4, 2010; epub: Oct 14, 2010; DOI]

5.    "Dynamic regulation of CD45 lateral mobility by the spectrin-ankyrin cytoskeleton of T cells," C.W. Cairo*, R. Das., A. Albohy, Q.J. Baca, D. Pradhan, J.S. MorrowD. Coombs, and D.E. Golan, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010, 285(15), 11392-11401. [epub Feb 17, 2010; DOIOA link] Also see our highlight on EurekAlert!

4.    "A modular synthesis of alkynyl-phosphocholine headgroups for labeling of sphingomyelin and phosphatidyl choline,"  M.S. Sandbhor, J.A. Key, I.S. Strelkov, and C.W. Cairo*, Journal of Organic Chemsitry, 2009, 74(22), 8669-8674. [epub: Oct 27, 2009; DOI]

3.    "A hidden Markov model for single particle tracks quantifies dynamic interactions between LFA-1 and the actin cytoskeleton", R. Das*, C.W. Cairo, and D. Coombs, PLoS Computational Biology, 2009, 5(11): e1000556. [epub: Nov 6, 2009; OA link]

 

2.    "Photophysical characterization of triazole substituted coumarin fluorophores", J.A. Key, S. Koh, Q. Timerghazin, A. Brown and C.W. Cairo*, Dyes & Pigments, 2009, 82, 196-203. [epub: Jan 3, 2009; DOI] [A top 25 hottest article for July-Sep 2009, and April-June 2009]

cairo pov1.    “T Cell Adhesion Mechanisms Revealed by Receptor Lateral Mobility”, C.W. Cairo* and D.E. Golan*, Biopolymers2008, 89, 409-419. [epub: Nov 26, 2007; DOI]

5. "New answers to old conundrums: what antibodies, exosomes, and inflammasomes bring to the conversation. Canadian National Transplant Research Program international summit report," Dieude, M; West, LJ; Muruve, DA; Gunaratman, L; Mohankumar, T; Zorn, E; Cairo, CW; Freed, DH; Schultz, K; Fairchild, RL; Hebert, M-J, Transplantation, 2018, 102, 209-214. [epub Jul 21, 2017; DOIOA link]

4.     "Synthesis of alpha-brominated phosphonates and their application as phosphate bioisosteres," A.M. Downey and C.W. Cairo*, MedChemComm, 2014, 5, 11, 1619-1633. [epub Sep 5, 2014; OA link]

3.     "Inhibitors of the human neuraminidase enzymes," C.W. Cairo* , MedChemComm, 2014, 5, 1067-1074. [epub Jun 18, 2014; OA link]

2.    "Fluorescent small-molecule probes of biochemistry at the plasma membrane," C.W. Cairo*, J.A. Key, and C.M. Sadek, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 2010, 14(1), 57-63. [epub: Nov 4, 2009; DOI] [A top 25 hottest article for Jan-Mar 2010]

1.    "Signaling by Committee: Receptor Clusters Determine Pathways of Cellular Activation," C.W. Cairo*, ACS-Chemical Biology, 2007, 2, 652-655. [epub: Oct 19, 2007; DOI]

4.    “5-(4-Hexyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole,” Key, J.A.; Cairo, C.W. and Ferguson, M.J.*,  Acta Cryst 2012, E68, o3128-o3129. [epub: Oct 13, 2012, OA link]

3.    “5-(1-Benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole.” Key, J.A.; Cairo, C.W. and McDonald, R.*, Acta Cryst 2012, E68, o3130-o3131. [epub: Oct 13, 2012; OA link]

2.    “1-[1-(2,1,3-Benzoxadiazol-5-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]hexan-1-one,” Key, J.A.; Cairo, C.W. and McDonald, R.*, Acta Cryst. 2012, E68, o3132. [epub: Oct 13, 2012; OA link]

bistriazole1.   “7,7'-(3,3'-Dibenzyl-3H,3'H-4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazole-5,5'-diyl)bis(4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one)”, J.A. Key, C.W. Cairo and M.F. Ferguson*, Acta Cryst. 2008, E64, o1910. [epub Sept 13, 2008; PDF; OA link]

 

13. Hernandez Armada, D., M.Sc., "Immobilization of oligosaccharides in affinity chromatography and applications to screening human milk oligosaccharide receptors," 246 pgs, 2015, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

12. Dandapat, A., MSc., "Bifunctional reagents for oxime ligation," 155 pgs, 2014, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

11. Khanna, N., MSc., "Substrates of the human neuraminidase and sialic acid esterase enzymes," 150 pgs, 2014, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

10.   Albohy, A., Ph.D., "Structure-based design of inhibitors for the human neuraminidase enzymes NEU2, NEU3, and NEU4," 302 pgs, 2014, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

9.    Jia, F., M.Sc., "The human neuraminidase enzyme, NEU3, regulates integrin-mediated cell migration via changes in glycolipic composition," 159 pgs, 2013, Univeristy of Alberta. [Proquest link]

8.    Downey, A. M., M.Sc., "Design and synthesis of alpha-bromo phosphonates as analogs of glucose-6-phosphate", 274 pgs, 2012, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

7.    Zou, Y., M.Sc., "Design and synthesis of inhibitors for the human neuraminidase 3 enzyme", 235 pgs, 2011, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

6.    Loka, R.S., Ph.D., "Exploration of carbohydrate epitopes in their native habitat with the Staudinger ligation", 327 pgs, 2011, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

5.    Key, J.A., Ph.D., "Fluorogenic and fluorescent bioorthogonal lablling strategies for examining glycoproteins and phospholipids", 437 pgs, 2011, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

4.    Sadek, C.M., M.Sc., "Exploring the role of sialic acid in the glycoprotein LFA-1 using bioconjugate chemistry", 127 pgs, 2011, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

3.    Ebesoh, N.G., M.Sc., "Probing the function of LFA-1 using fluorescent proteins that target the beta-2 integrin transmembrane domain", 157 pgs, 2011, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

2.    Tulsi, N.S., M.Sc., "Synthesis of BrPmp, a phosphotyrosine analog, and its incorporation into peptides", 113 pgs, 2011, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

1.    Vishaal, R., M.Sc. (co-advised; Mathematics & Statistical Sciences), "Quantitative analysis of single particle tracking experiments: Applying ecological methods in cellular biology," 80 pgs, 2010, University of Alberta. [Proquest link]

2.    T.L. Lowary; C.W. Cairo; L.J. West; J.M. Buriak; P.J. Meloncelli; M. Jeyakanthan; and A.M. Slaney, "Method and system for ABO compatible blood type matching," W.I.P.O., The Governors of the University of Alberta, WO/2011/106898. [Link]

1.    C.W. Cairo; N.S. Tulsi; and A.M. Downey, "Methods and systems for preparing irreversible inhibitors of protein tyrosine phsophatases," W.I.P.O., The Governors of the University of Alberta , WO/2011/106898. [Link]


  1. “Analysis of a Two-Dimensional Dissociation Constant for Laterally Mobile Cell-Cell Adhesion Molecules within a Contact Area”, D.M. Zhu, M.L. Dustin, C.W. Cairo, D.E. Golan*, 2007, Biophys. J., 92, 1022-1034. [PDF]
  2. “Mechanisms of Cellular Avidity Regulation in CD2/CD58 Mediated Adhesion of T Cells”, D.M. Zhu, M.L. Dustin, C.W. Cairo, H. Thatte, D.E. Golan*, 2006, ACS-Chemical Biology, 1, 649-658. [PDF] [Supporting]
  3. “Cytoskeletal Regulation Couples LFA-1 Conformational Changes to Receptor Lateral Mobility and Clustering”, C.W. Cairo, R. Mirchev, D.E. Golan*, 2006, Immunity, 25, 297-308. [PDF] [Supporting 1] [Supporting 2] [Supporting 3]
  4. “Visualization and Characterization of Receptor Clusters by Transmission Electron Microscopy”, J.E. Gestwicki, C.W. Cairo, M.J. Borrok, L.L. Kiessling*, 2003, Methods in Enzymology, 362, 301-312. [PDF]
  5. “Influencing Receptor-Ligand Binding Mechanisms with Multivalent Architecture”, J.E. Gestwicki, C.W. Cairo, L.E. Strong, K.A. Oetjen, and L.L. Kiessling*, 2002, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 124, 14922. [PDF] [Supporting]
  6. “Control of Multivalent Interactions by Binding Epitope Density”, C.W. Cairo, J.E. Gestwicki, M. Kanai, and L.L. Kiessling*, 2002, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 124, 1615-1619. [PDF] [Supporting]
  7. “Selective Immobilization of Multivalent Ligands for Surface Plasmon Resonance and Fluorescence Microscopy”, J.E. Gestwicki, C.W. Cairo, D.A. Mann, R.M. Owen, L.L. Kiessling*, 2002, Anal. Biochem., 305, 149-155. [PDF]
  8. “Affinity-Based Inhibition of b-Amyloid Toxicity”, C.W. Cairo, A. Strzelec, R.M. Murphy, L.L. Kiessling*, 2002, Biochemistry, 41, 8620-8629. [PDF]
  9. "Cell Aggregation By Scaffolded Receptor Clusters”, J.E. Gestwicki, L.E. Strong, C.W. Cairo, F.J. Boehm, L.L. Kiessling*, 2001, Chem. Biol., 9, 163-169. [Journal Cover] [PDF]C&B Cover 2001
  10. “Designed Potent Multivalent Chemoattractants for Escherichia coli”, J.E. Gestwicki, L.E. Strong, S.L. Borchardt, C.W. Cairo, A.M. Schnoes, L.L. Kiessling*, 2001, Biorg. Med. Chem., 9, 2387-2393. [PDF]

  1. “Drug-receptor interactions,” C.W. Cairo, J.B. Simon, D.E. Golan, in Principles of Pharmacology, 2nd Ed., D.E. Golan Ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2007. [link]
  2. “Immobilized amyloid-b protein experiments using SPR technology”, C.W. Cairo and L.L. Kiessling*, 2002, Biacore Journal, 3, 4-7. [PDF] [link]
  3. “Hitting the Sweet Spot”, L.L. Kiessling* and C.W. Cairo, 2002, Nat. Biotech., 20, 234-235. [PDF] [DOI]

  1. Cairo, C.W., Ph.D., “Promoting Receptor Clustering using Multivalent Ligands and Identifying Ligands for the b-Amyloid Peptide”, 279 pgs, 2002, University of Wisconsin-Madison. [PDF low res] [PDF high res]